1. siGnificant accoUntinG policies continued
1.17 financial instruments continued
1.17.2 Cash and Cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash balances and bank balances. Bank overdrafts that are repayable on demand and
form an integral part of the Group's cash management are included as a component of cash and cash equivalents for the purpose
of the statement of cash flows.
accounting for financial income and financial expenses are discussed in notes 1.14 and 1.12 respectively.
1.17.3 available for sale Financial assets ('aFs')
aFs financial assets are non-derivative financial assets that are either designated to this category or do not qualify for inclusion
in any of the other categories of financial assets. the Group's aFs financial assets include the equity investment in Betit holdings
aFs financial assets are measured at fair value. Gains and losses are recognised in other comprehensive income and reported
within the aFs reserve within equity, except for interest and dividend income, impairment losses and foreign exchange differences
on monetary assets, which are recognised in profit or loss.
When the asset is disposed of or is determined to be impaired, the cumulative gain or loss recognised in other comprehensive
income is reclassified from the equity reserve to profit or loss. interest calculated using the effective interest method and dividends
are recognised in profit or loss within finance income.
For aFs equity investments impairment reversals are not recognised in profit and loss and any subsequent increase in fair value
is recognised in other comprehensive income.
1.17.3 derivative Financial instruments
derivative financial instruments are accounted for at Fair Value through Profit and loss (FVtPl). the options associated with
the Group's investment in Bhl are considered derivative financial instruments and are carried at their fair value which is remeasured
at each reporting date. any movements in fair value are taken to the consolidated income statement
1.17.3 impairment of Financial assets
Financial assets are assessed for indicators of impairment at the end of each reporting period. Financial assets are considered
to be impaired when there is objective evidence that, as a result of one or more events that occurred after the initial recognition
of the financial asset, the estimated future cash flows of the investment have been affected.
objective evidence of impairment could include:
• significant financial difficulty of the issuer or counterparty; or
• breach of contract, such as a default or delinquency in interest or principal payments; or
• it becoming probable that the borrower will enter bankruptcy or financial re-organisation; or
• the disappearance of an active market for that financial asset because of financial difficulties.
equity comprises the following:
'share capital' represents the nominal value of equity shares.
'share premium' represents the excess over nominal value of the fair value of consideration received for equity shares, net of
expenses of the share issue.
'Retained earnings' represents retained profits.
'merger reserve' arose on the re-domiciliation of the Group from luxembourg to the isle of man in 2010. it consists of the preredomiciliation
reserves of the luxembourg company plus the difference in the issued share capital (31,135,762 share at €0.01
versus 31,135,762 shares at €1.24).
'translation reserve' represents exchange differences on translation of foreign subsidiaries recognised in other comprehensive
60 GVC HOLDINGS PLC ANNUAL REPORT 2015
notes to the consolidated financial statements continued
for the year ended 31 december 2015